Question 1: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs from other three in position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
Question 3: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
Question 5: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
It is hard for us to solve the overpopulation problem, ______ ?
Question 6: The ____ of jobs means that there is a lot of social issues in the big cities.
Question 7: Industrialization is a trend ______ a shift from the old agricultural economics to novel non-agricultural economy.
Question 8: On this account, more and more people are prompted to ____ into cities and towns to obtain the wide variety of social benefits and services.
Question 9: Urbanization comprises of the two key factors of changes and ________.
Question 10: With the increase in the number of people living in urban centers, there is continued ____ of houses.
Question 11: The United Nations projected that half of the world's population ______ in urban areas at the end of 2008.
Question 12: Village culture is characterized by common bloodlines, intimate relationships, and communal behavior,_______ urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, and competitive behavior.
Question 13: Due tounexpected population growth and unemployment, there is the spread of unlawful resident settlements represented by slums and _______.
Question 14: As a result, sanitation becomes poor and sewages flow chaotically, and they ____ into neighboring streams, rivers, lakes, or seas.
Question 15: More people means increased number of vehicles which leads to traffic _______ and vehicular pollution
Question 16: The social, economic and living conditions in congested urban areas _____ access and utilization of public health care services.
Question 17: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word CLOSEST in meaning the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
The objective here is to build sustainable cities that embrace improved environmental conditions and safe habitats for all urban populations.
Question 18: Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency
Question 19: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word OPPOSITE in meaning the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Urbanization should go along with sustainable solutions to make a necessary balance.
Question 20: Transforming agricultural lands to serve urbanization also causes many social challenges such as cultivation, food security and unemployment among farmers.
Question 21: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best completes each of the following exchanges.
Quan and Trang are talking about their presentation on urbanization.
Quan: “Hey Trang, have you prepared our presentation on urbanization?”
Trang: “ _________________”
Question 22: Adam and Lucy are discussing effects of rapid industrialization.
Adam: “Rapid urbanization is gradually doing harms to our environment, isn’t it?”
Lucy: “ _________________”
Question 23: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 23 to 27.
The world population is __(23)__ , no more so than in its cities. Today, there are 21 megacities, each containing more than 10 million inhabitants, three-quarters of them in developing nations. By 2020, there are expected to be at least 27 megacities. Such a ___(24)__ rate of urbanization brings its own problems, especially in developing nations, where the majority of the megacities will be found.
Employment and educational opportunities are the main attraction of urban centers. But hopes for a better life are often dashed as overpopulation puts an ____(25)___ strain on the infrastructure of the cities and their ability to provide basic necessities such as clean water and a place to live.
Many rural migrants fail to find adequate work, and therefore cannot afford ____(26)___ housing. In some megacities up to 50 per cent of the residents live in slums. This problem is tremendous, with the United Nations predicting that half the world’s population will be living in cities by next year. If the infrastructure within those cities does not grow at the same rate the result will be ____(27)____
(Adapted from Vocabulary for IELTS)
Question 28: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or Don your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 28-35
Strategies for waste reduction, separation, processing, management and recycling and reuse are feasible, low-cost alternatives to the open incineration of solid waste, which is common now in developing cities. Where incineration is unavoidable, then combustion technologies with strict emissions controls are critical.Improved collection, management and disposal of urban waste is one important strategy that can yield multiple improvements in both climate and health. Using anaerobic digestion, methane emissions can be captured from sewage, livestock manure , and landfill solid waste, and used as biogas or bio-methane, a fuel for cooking, heating or power needs.
Anaerobic biosolid digestion systems can produce a gas composed of 55% to 70% methane, which is typically much cleaner than biomass combustion, although not as low-emissions as natural gas.As a renewable fuel, methane capture and use, however, has many other health and environment advantages. The process reduces methane emissions to the atmosphere that contribute to ozone, which are a factor in chronic respiratory illnesses, as well as a contributor to climate change. Finally if biogas replaces biomass or coal combustion in household cooking or heating, then household and outdoor air pollution will also be significantly reduced.
Millions of rural households in China, and thousands in Nepal, already generate biogas cooking fuel from animal waste in small, simple digesters. Insofar as these also process household sewage waste, biogas production also requires a hook-up to an improved latrine , which has a sanitation benefit as well.In larger, industrialized plants that exist at urban level, recovery of over 90% of methane gas can be achieved with established technologies. Improved urban wastewater treatment systems can also provide a source of methane capture and purification, and the resulting fuels may be used as a clean source of urban power generation as well as for households.
The UNEP-affiliated Climate and Clean Air Coalition, in which WHO is a leading member, has launched a municipal solid waste initiative which fosters technical training and awareness-building to assist cities around the world in mitigating methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.Sustainable waste management activities can serve as a catalyst for local economic development as well. For instance, a joint U.S.-Brazil initiative, created in collaboration with municipal authorities, and with the support of financing from the UNFCCC’s Clean Development Mechanism, created a methane capture system in Rio de Janeiro’s Gramacho landfill. This biogas project improved waste enclosure and drainage, a sanitation benefit for the city, as well as introducing methane flaring and connection to purification for use as an income and energy source. The project is anticipated to produce 90 million normal cubic metres (Nm3)of biogas on average over 20 years.
(Adapted from www.who.int)
What can be the best title of the passage?
Question 29: According to the paragraph 1, the phrase ‘yield’ is closest in meaning to_____:
Question 30: According to the paragraph 1, from all of the following methane emissions can be captured EXCEPT?
Question 31: According to the paragraph 2, which of the following is the most advantageous to health?
Question 32: According to the 2, what health problem can be mainly suffered if the ozone layer is weakened by methane emissions?
Question 33: According to the paragraph 3, the phrase ‘latrine’ is closest in meaning to_____:
Question 34: According to the paragraph 3, which of the following supplies the majority of methane emissions achievable in cities?
Question 35: According to the paragraph 4, the phrase ‘sanitation’ is closest in meaning to_____:
Question 36: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or Don your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 36-42
Urban planning offers the opportunity to envision and implement sustainable settlement patterns. In North America, strict zoning regulations has caused physical separation of residential neighborhoods and virtually all other functions – reinforcing dependence on private vehicle travel between homes and daily destinations, such as schools, shops, and health services. The result is that in many North American cities, 90% or more of daily trips may be by private vehicle.
Conversely, in European cities such as Copenhagen or Zurich, which have a more “integrated” approach to zoning, whereby new housing is developed alongside schools, clinics and small businesses, up to two-thirds of trips are by public or non-motorized transport and only one-third of trips may be by private vehicles.
Developing Asian, Latin American and African cities are characterized with a mix of approaches – with some land use veering towards the North American models of suburban malls and gated communities accessible only by private vehicles; Asian cities often develop with very high-rise skylines. Still other cities are attempting a mid-rise, mixed-use, approach. Notable examples include Curitiba, Brazil and Bogota, Colombia.
Mid-rise urban areas are often favored more by pedestrians who prefer to walk in areas graced by buildings of “human proportions.” Also, urban concentrations of high-rise buildings can exacerbate heat-island impacts by creating large expanses of concrete, which absorb heat, and blocking natural breezes, or conversely, creating “wind-tunnels” and blocking sunlight – all of which discourage urban street life.
Proven methods for cooling the urban environment include: open skyline design to allow cooling winds; green design of buildings and of building rooftops; other “vertical” urban garden strategies; green, porous parking surfaces, and even more preferably, parks built above underground parking lots; fountains and urban pocket parks or urban arterial parks laced by walking and bikeways. Reducing urban heat-island impacts also reduces energy requirements for air conditioning, smog levels, and health risks due to heat stress and poor air quality.
Careful planning can, however, overcome these obstacles, e.g. careful spatial planning of high-rises and the lining of key pedestrian corridors with street-level windows and businesses, trees and greenery, and amenities such as street furniture. Whether the approach is mid-rise or very high- density cities, development of space-efficient rapid transit infrastructures and green spaces is critical to support physically active lifestyles. For instance, clustering homes around green areas, well planned pedestrian and cycle paths, and efficient public transport promote air quality, children’s mobility and reduced traffic injuries.
(Adapted from www.who.int)
What can be served best as the title of the passage?
Question 37: According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
Question 38: According to the passage, which of the areas is NOT characterized with the mix of different transport approaches?
Question 39: According to the paragraph 4, the word ‘exacerbate’ is closest in meaning to ____:
Question 40: According to the passage, which of the areas facilitates more walking approach?
Question 41: Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a method to cool the urban environment?
Question 42: According to the paragraph 6, the word ‘clustering’ is closest in meaning to ____:
Question 43: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following sentences.
It was the year 2008 that Hanoi is expanded by the merger of the capital with Ha Tay province.
Question 44: The expand of Hanoi in2008 due to urbanization and industrialization processhas resulted the loss of vast agricultural lands.
Question 45: Poor air and water quality, insufficient water available , waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments.
Question 46: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is CLOSEST in meaning to each of the following questions.
Some experts believe that intensive urban growth can lead to greater poverty.
Question 47: “Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air.” saidDr. William
Question 48: Volume of uncollected wasteis so large that the local government cannot solve by itself.
Question 49: Mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions.
Reduce air pollution by using alternative transport systems. The urban air will become fresher.
Question 50: In 1960, the global urban population was 34% of the total. By 2014 the urban population accounted for 54% of the total.